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Forest Trees

Chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD)

What is COPD?

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a group of lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties.

It includes:

  • emphysema – damage to the air sacs in the lungs

  • chronic bronchitis – long-term inflammation of the airways


COPD is a common condition that mainly affects middle-aged or older adults who smoke.

Many people do not realise they have it.


The breathing problems tend to get gradually worse over time and can limit your normal

activities, although treatment can help keep the condition under control.


Symptoms of COPD

The main symptoms of COPD are:

  • increasing breathlessness, particularly when you're active

  • a persistent chesty cough with phlegm – some people may dismiss this as just a "smoker's cough"

  • frequent chest infections

  • persistent wheezing


Without treatment, the symptoms usually get progressively worse. There may also be periods when they get suddenly worse, known as a flare-up or exacerbation.


Find out more about the symptoms of COPD.

When to get medical advice

See a GP if you have persistent symptoms of COPD, particularly if you're over 35 and smoke or used to smoke.


Do not ignore the symptoms. If they're caused by COPD, it's best to start treatment as soon as possible, before your lungs become significantly damaged.

The GP will ask about your symptoms and whether you smoke or have smoked in the past. They can organise a breathing test to help diagnose COPD and rule out other lung conditions, such as asthma.

Find out more about how COPD is diagnosed.

Causes of COPD

COPD happens when the lungs become inflamed, damaged and narrowed. The main cause is smoking, although the condition can sometimes affect people who have never smoked.

The likelihood of developing COPD increases the more you smoke and the longer you've smoked.

Some cases of COPD are caused by long-term exposure to harmful fumes or dust. Others are the result of a rare genetic problem which means the lungs are more vulnerable to damage.

Find out more about the causes of COPD.

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Regardless of how long you have smoked for, quitting smoking will greatly improve your health. The benefits of stopping smoking can be experienced almost immediately. Follow this link to see how long it takes for the changes to take effect.

Treatments for COPD

The damage to the lungs caused by COPD is permanent, but treatment can help slow down the progression of the condition.

Treatments include:

  • stopping smoking – if you have COPD and you smoke, this is the most important thing you can do

  • inhalers and medicines – to help make breathing easier

  • pulmonary rehabilitation – a specialised programme of exercise and education

  • surgery or a lung transplant – although this is only an option for a very small number of people


Find out more about how COPD is treated and living with COPD.

Outlook for COPD

The outlook for COPD varies from person to person. The condition cannot be cured or reversed, but for many people, treatment can help keep it under control so it does not severely limit their daily activities.

But in some people, COPD may continue to get worse despite treatment, eventually having a significant impact on their quality of life and leading to life-threatening problems.

Social care and support guide

If you:

  • need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability

  • care for someone regularly because they're ill, elderly or disabled – including family members


The guide to care and support explains your options and where you can get support.


Preventing COPD

COPD is largely a preventable condition. You can significantly reduce your chances of developing

it if you avoid smoking.

If you already smoke, stopping can help prevent further damage to your lungs before it starts to

cause troublesome symptoms.

If you think you need help to stop smoking, you can contact NHS Smokefree for free advice and

support. You may also want to talk to a GP about the stop smoking treatments available.

Find out more about stopping smoking and where to find a stop smoking service near you.

information taken from:

Video: What is COPD

Animated video about COPD, the causes, symptoms and treatment.

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myCOPD is the complete solution for patients suffering from COPD. From perfecting your inhaler technique with the inhaler videos, receiving education from world experts, and a complete online pulmonary rehabilitation class. myCOPD will deliver to you the very best in COPD care.  For further information, visit myCOPD.


If you would like to be registered to have access to the my mhealth app, there is no need to speak to your GP, the Health & Wellbeing team can do this for you.  Please contact the team with the information required - patient’s name, date of birth, NHS number, email address and the app you wish to have access to, e.g. COPD, Asthma, Diabetes, Heart Disease or myOp.

Please note - this service is only available until the 28th March 2024 for new patients to register.

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